Gaining and Using Personal Power

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Since I’ve reviewed a number of works in the last couple of years that seem to deal with the question of how to gain and use personal power, I’m going to devote a couple of blog post to it. Specifically, the most popular theme seems to be about killing someone and taking over their power, but other writers, like Holly Black for example, have taken a deeper look at why women, in particular, seem to have problems in gaining and using real authority. Power isn’t a dark mystery. It’s an important subject to anybody interested in leadership, and social scientists have studied how it’s done. Again, this is just the high points, and anyone interested in the topic should do more reading.

In 1959, French and Raven identified five bases of power: legitimate, reward, expert, referent and coercive. Later, they added informational as a sixth. Legitimate power is generally gained from a formal position of some kind, like a boss or a president, that everyone agrees has a right to give orders and expect compliance. Reward power has to do with what kind of rewards a person can provide for his or her followers. Bosses can hand out bonuses, for example; politicians provide a job in the administration and crime lords share their wealth and influence with followers. Expert power is based on high levels of skill or knowledge. A mentor has this kind of power, as does a medical expert or a military strategist. Referent power comes from a person’s particular personality or charisma. This kind of leader is highly respected and perceived as worthy by his or her followers. Coercive power comes from the ability of a particular person to hand out punishment for anyone who steps out of line. Police, the military and some businesses enforce this kind of power, as someone who fails to follow the rules can be subject to fines, imprisonment, or in the case of work, get demoted or fired. Informational power has to do with the ability to control the information someone receives. This includes influencing beliefs through fake news and web brigades to rig foreign elections.

It’s easy to see that highly effective leaders often employ several of these power bases. King Arthur, for example, was apparently a highly charismatic leader, seen as legitimate because of Excalibur. He also had the power to punish and reward his followers, and presumably he developed into an expert peacemaker and strategist in dealing with his enemies. Some leaders may have problems in combining power bases like this. For example, a boss may have positional authority, but lose the respect of employees because of negative and demeaning policies, overuse of punishment, corruption, unreasonable demands, failure in planning, etc. Some positional power is also undermined because this kind of leader doesn’t have the control of events followers expect. For example, company management sets policy that supervisors have to follow. Personal charisma is always the wild card.

So, why do women have problems with this? I can’t define this problem in just a few words, but I’ll review some literature. Again, studies have suggested causes. There is a huge snarl of traditional expectations at work that undermine women in power positions. Traditionally women have taken their positions of power and authority from their male relatives, husbands or boyfriends. You can still see this at work from the prominence of Ivanka Trump, for example, or the push to draft Michelle Obama as a presidential candidate. Women are often less interested in positions of power, possibly because of family responsibilities and other interests. Another big difference is that men traditionally mentor younger men, sharing methods for successfully wielding power, while women fail to establish appropriate support networks. Because of this women can miss the existence of unwritten rules in an organization that all the men know about. Once in positions of power, women also tend to behave differently, as studies show women are less inclined to use rewards like bribery, suggesting that they may employ fewer tools in building and maintaining a power base. Studies of alpha females found that their positions of power correlated with masculine traits, but women may have problems in presenting these without being identified as shrewish and strident. Consider the campaign to convince Oprah Winfrey to run for president, for example. Winfrey is highly charismatic and known for empathy and social consciousness. She has considerable influence in media, but why was she unwilling to move up to a run for president in 2020? How would she have had to alter her image to stand on a debate stage next to Elizabeth Warren or Kamala Harris, for example, and attack the other candidates?

For further reading on female power, check the article here.

Review of The Cruel Prince by Holly Black

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I reviewed The Wicked King, second in this Folk of the Air series, which won the Goodreads Choice Award for Best Young Adult Novel in 2019, but thought it would probably help if I’d read the first book in the series, too. The Queen of Nothing completes the three-novel set. This novel was published by Little Brown in 2018, and runs 385 pages. Apparently it was optioned for a film in 2017. This review contains spoilers.

Jude’s mother was a mortal married to Madoc, a general of the High King of Faerie. She had one daughter Vivienne with him, and then ran away with a human artisan to the human world, where they had two more daughters. Madoc followed them, killed Jude’s mortal parents and spirited the girls away to raise with his new wife and son Oak. At seventeen, Jude wants desperately to fit in, but she is tortured by the young fay of her social circle, especially the cruel Prince Cardan, youngest son of the High King. Although her twin sister Taryn yields to the abuse and finds a place, Jude remains defiant, determined to win some kind of power to make her tormentors sorry. She schemes and intrigues, allying with Prince Dain, who is expected to succeed the High King, but then the coronation goes wrong, leaving the kingdom on the verge of civil war. Can she come up with a plan to save her family and make peace in the kingdom?

This is a pretty awesome intrigue, strongly suggesting the author had a tough time in high school. The story starts off with a bullying episode and gets successively more gripping as it goes along. Nothing and no one is what they seem, and all the characters are gray, rather than black and white. The Faerie are all cruel and hungry, but they love each other, too, and they fear loss. The characters take on dimension slowly as the tale progresses, as Jude fights her way through the love, hate and ambition, trying at first to achieve something for herself, and then once things go wrong, to save the people she loves. The Faerie kingdom and its rules are well-laid out, and now and then Jude slips back into the mortal world with her fay sister Vivi to shop at Target.

It’s hard to find anything really wrong with this. Considering the setting, I did start to suspect the characters were two-sided early on, so it wasn’t really a surprise when they showed a different face. One questionable issue here is what Jude is turning into—maybe becoming just as cruel, evil and calculating as the fay? She’s been cursed, so we’ll have to see how it turns out.

Five stars.

I’m going on to review the Queen of Nothing. If you’d like to read my review of The Wicked King, here’s a link to it.

Congrats to the 2019 Nebula Winners!

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The Nebula Conference was virtual this year, but here are the fiction awards announced on May 30:

Best Novel : A Song for a New Day by Sarah Pinsker (Berkley)

Best Novella: This Is How You Lose the Time War by Amal El-Mohtar & Max Gladstone (Saga)

Best Novelette: Carpe Glitter by Cat Rambo (Meerkat)

Best Short Story: “Give the Family My Love” by A.T. Greenblatt (Clarkesworld 2/19)

Additional awards:

The Andre Norton Award for Outstanding Young Adult Science Fiction or Fantasy Book: Riverland by Fran Wilde (Amulet)

Game Writing: The Outer Worlds, Leonard Boyarsky, Megan Starks, Kate Dollarhyde, Chris L’Etoile (Obsidian Entertainment)

The Ray Bradbury Award for Outstanding Dramatic Presentation: Good Omens: “Hard Times” by Neil Gaiman (Amazon Studios/BBC Studios)

Damon Knight Memorial Grand Master Award: Lois McMaster Bujold

The Myth of Family versus Factory Farms in SFF Stories

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Okay, one more rant in this series and then I’m done. There seems to be a myth out there about the pastoral family farm. Martha Wells uses this to describe Preservation’s economy, and I’m sure she’s right on the current zeitgeist. It’s more about that yearning to live a free life in a kind, caring, socialist economy that takes care of everybody (including animals) and provides the kind of safe food supply the US enjoyed in the pre-world war years.

This theme is a reflection of real life movements concerned about the welfare of animals crammed into crowded pens on factory farms. There are also concerns about disease in this system, and how quickly it can spread in crowded conditions. Activist groups are currently taking action on bills to limit factory farming in the US as a proposed method of “ protecting the food supply” from pandemics like coronavirus, apparently trying to make the association between these farms and the wet markets in China where animals are slaughtered onsite.

About 99% of US farm animals live on factory farms, and this isn’t unusual. Global studies suggest that about 90% of farm animals are raised on factory farms worldwide. So, if factory farms were banned, then a possible 99% of the meat supply would disappear off the US grocery store shelves.

Could we go to a vegetable or grain-based food supply instead? It’s definitely more efficient and cost-effective. Currently about 33% of corn produced in the US goes for animal feed, and about 40% goes to ethanol production. Only about 1.6% goes to bread and cereal products. US wheat looks slightly better: 36% percent is consumed domestically by humans, 50% is exported, and 10% is used for livestock feed, Couldn’t we add soy and turn these grains into burgers, instead?

The truth is that grain is also produced on factory farms. US grains are often genetically modified (GMO), leading to varieties that produce well, but may cause unknown health problems. Grains are also subject to disease, though generally fungus and not viruses like swine flu or coronavirus. Crops like grain, lentils and soybeans are often spraying with glyphosate (Roundup) to desiccate the green parts before harvesting. This after earlier spraying with insecticides to control pests. This means grain and vegetables from factory farms are often contaminated with chemicals that can cause cancer and affect hormones. You can see where the issue about factory farms is coming from.

So, is there any way to make the small family farm work again as the major US food supplier? The truth is that the small family farm has been in trouble for a long time. Most of them run in the red, and small farmers have to have second jobs that pay the taxes and actually support the family. Regardless, these small farms still produce about 27% of the US food supply. Can we get by on that? Probably not.

The issues are land available, profitability and population. About 44% of US land is currently available for agriculture, and many small family farms are gone, bought up for housing developments. Farming is also what’s called in economics a perfect competition, which means that profits often go down as production goes up. In 1900, the population of the US was about 76 million, and about 60% lived in rural areas and grew their own food. Today the population is about 273 million and only about 18% live in rural areas. That means it will be hard to create small family farms again, and to make them profitable. Next, would this system be able to produce enough food for the current US population? Not without major changes. So, trying to limit factory farms is a questionable goal without having a backup plan.

This also means that writers should take a second look at that idea of the bucolic economy supported by small family farms. It will only work if the population is small and most people provide their own food supply. This will not be a highly profitable economy. Small farmers have less capital to buy equipment and they lose the economy of scale advantage that large farms have in planting crops. That means everyone will need to work in the fields. Farming is not a leisure activity unless you have, maybe, a lot of bots that do the dirty work for you. That’s a big investment, too. Maybe illegal aliens instead? They work for low wages.

Economic Analysis of the Corporate Rim versus Preservation in the Murderbot Diaries

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This won’t be anything scholarly, but I’ll try to hit the high points. I don’t mean to pick on Martha Wells, in particular. I love the Murderbot Diaries, and generally the economic system has been vague enough to get by. However, after a few installments, it’s now specific enough to get a grip on.

First, the Corporate Rim is a fairly standard instance of unregulated capitalism. It’s unclear where the government is that should be regulating it, or even if there is such a government—maybe there’s only a network of local administrations and a civil court system. If so, this is a case of imperialist might-makes-right, and it’s no wonder everybody has to hire muscle to carry out simple planetary surveys. The corporations indenture workers on labor contracts where they do get paid, but also have to pay the companies for board and health care, meaning they won’t have much at the end of the contract. In addition, the corporates buy and sell planets, kill off inconvenient competitors, ignore laws about interdicted areas, enslave human-machine hybrids, and are irresponsible with terraforming operations and seeding of colonists. Apparently there’s also a lot of damage from production like mining operations that the companies expect to abandon. This sounds very workable, but it’s also clear that it’s not the most optimal system.

Preservation is an independent freehold planet. The colonists were originally seeded on another planet where the terraforming was ineffective, so they were starving. They were rescued by a colony ship that stored them in the hold and brought them to Preservation. The colonists then rebuilt the ship into a wormhole port station. It’s unclear who operated the ship or how they got title to the planet, but the story suggests this was a rescue operation rather than a business deal–maybe someone looking for colonists to populate their private planet. According to Murderbot, the planet works on a barter system but the station works on hard currency cards in order to interface with systems that travelers come in from. Farms on the planet are operated by family groups, and everyone seems to be prosperous, though we have no information on how this works. (Does the government own the farms? Where are the farm workers? Do they use bots for the dirty work? Does everyone take a turn in the fields?) The government doesn’t seem to lack for funds. Commerce is low key and many things seem to be provided free of charge, including traveler lodging on the station. It appears that public servants volunteer their time, and are required to continue their normal occupations at the same time. This is why Mensah is the planetary leader and also working as lead on a planetary survey. Presumably she also has duties on the family farm, though we never see her working there, only on the survey and the station.

Okay, so I have some questions about how this system works. The main one is how family-operated farms and a barter system can generate enough wealth to build and maintain a wormhole station and operate a fleet of ships that is available for surveys and rescue missions. This sounds Bronze Age pastoral. The barter system means they will trade chickens for medical care, and it will take a lot of chickens and cows to buy a spaceship. Pin Lee is a lawyer and Ratthi is a biologist. Do they get paid with tomatoes and squash? Do they work on farms in addition to this? Does Preservation have manufacturing capabilities? How does that work on a barter system? They’ve bought an option on another planet and are considering further investment. What are they planning to do with it? Where did they get the funds? Plus Mensah has plenty of cash on hand to pay off the Company for bonds and to buy one of their SecUnits. Presumably this is government funds she’s using. Therefore Preservation must grow, mine or manufacture something of considerable trade value with the Corporation Rim in order to have this kind of budget. It can’t be generated from a farm and barter economy without a currency to store value. That just won’t work.

Review of In an Absent Dream by Seanan McGuire

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This fantasy novella is a finalist for the 2020 Hugo Awards. It is a stand-alone story from McGuire’s award-winning Wayward Children series, including Every Heart a Doorway, Down Among the Sticks and Bones and Beneath the Sugar Sky. This book was published by Tor.com on 8 January 2019, and runs 197 pages. This review contains major spoilers.

Katherine Lundy is the principal’s daughter and friendless. She always follows the rules and spends her time reading and studying, expecting that life will provide a husband and family sometime in the future. However, she takes a wrong turn on the way home from school and opens a door into the Goblin Market, a place that offers friends and adventure, but also enforces rules and accounts for debt. Everything has a cost or a consequence in the Goblin Market. Lundy moves back and forth between worlds, and forges ties to both. Her eighteenth birthday is coming up soon, when she will have to choose between the two worlds. Is there any way she can avoid the choice and continue to live in both worlds?

This features McGuire’s trademark style and fills out the backstory for one of the characters in her Wayward Children universe. As usual, it has the feel of middle grade to young adult. This is likely a standard narrative for children whose response to exclusion is burying their nose in a book, and so will likely strike familiar chords with dedicated readers. Because Lundy is such a devoted rule follower, her door opens into a world where the Market imposes strict rules about fair value in person-to-person interactions and imposes consequences for failing to follow the rules. I’m glad to see someone take on the issue of rules and consequences, as this seems to be something often missing in current media for children. Lundy’s attempt to get around the major restriction leaves her stuck in childhood, a warning for kids who think they can avoid choices and never grow up.

On the less positive side, this has huge gaps that skip over adventures related in other books from the series, without giving any indication of where to find the rest of the story. This affects the characterization and the continuity, and affects the readability. We skip through Lundy’s childhood, mostly learning about her relations with her family at home, including her father, her older brother and her younger sister, and about her relationship with the Archivist and her friend Moon in the Goblin Market. Maybe because of the short book length, these relationships still feel merely sketched in. I’m also concerned that rule-following has a faintly negative flavor in the book. It’s true that not all rules are good and that we should always question the need for them, but rules are also there for a reason, and good rule following is what holds our human society together. It allows us to set appropriate boundaries and demands that we respect the rights of others. Although fair value is a great concept, it’s also a little vague, and I’m not sure the rules given in the book will be clear or relatable for young readers.

Three stars.

Review of “Omphalos” by Ted Chiang

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This alternate reality novelette is a finalist for the 2020 Hugo Awards. It was released in the author’s collection Exhalation, published 7 May 2019 by Knopf. This review contains spoilers.

Dr. Dorothea Morrell is an archaeologist working on a dig in Arisona. She is scheduled to give a public lecture in the Chicagou area on how tree rings and other artifacts date the creation, which goes well, but afterward she finds evidence of the illegal sale of museum relics. With only a post office box address to go on, she lays a trap for the thief and catches Wilhelmina McCullough, daughter of Nathan McCullough, director of the University of Alta California’s Museum of Natural Philosophy in Oakland. Wilhelmina explains that she is not really a thief, but she feels the relics not being displayed should be in the hands of the faithful, especially considering the huge crisis of faith that will be coming soon. Her father is in possession of evidence that the Earth is not the center of the universe. Can Dorothea’s own faith withstand this knowledge?

In case you’re wondering, omthalos is Greek for “navel,” and this story is a play on Omphalos: An Attempt to Untie the Geological Knot, by Philip Henry Gosse, published in 1857, where the author tries to reconcile the events of the Biblical Genesis with the evidence of science. In Dorothea’s alternate world, tree rings and ridges on clam shells stop at a certain point, the Atacama mummies have no navels and someone is carving the Yosemiti Cathedral into a cliff face in California. The date of the creation is clear. Faith is clearly a huge part of everyone’s existence, and the narrative mostly comes from Dorothea’s conversations with God. The number of stars is limited, and the center of the universe turns out to be approximately at 58 Eridani. This is a catastrophe on par with Copernicus’ observation that the Earth actually revolves around the sun and not the other way around, meaning that humans aren’t really the navel of creation. In this case, it looks like the inhabitants of 58 Eridani are, instead.

This story is satire, a gentle but fairly direct questioning of Western religion, and as such, I can imagine it might be offensive to some readers. I’m personally disappointed that the story didn’t give us any real glimpse of God’s chosen people out there at 58 Eridani. Dorathea wonders where that leaves us. Just an accident, I guess.

Four stars.

Review of “Do Not Look Back, My Lion” by Alix E. Harrow

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This fantasy short story is a finalist for the 2020 Hugo Awards. It was published by Beneath Ceaseless Skies on 21 January 2019. This review contains spoilers.

Eefa is a cripple and a healer and she has been a good husband, but now she wants to leave. She is married to the great warrior-woman Talaan the Lion and lives in the city of Xot, where the Emperor, Her Greatness the Mother of Vultures and Wolves, Ukhel’s Beloved, the Conqueror-King, has proclaimed the god Ukhel’s Era of Death. Talaan is pregnant with her fifth child, and now the Emperor wants her to fight in a war of conquest. Talaan has promised that this child will be unmarked by a promise scar and will not go off to war like her other children. Reluctantly, she agrees to the Emperor’s demands and rides to meet the foe. Her favorite son Tuvo, a sweet and sensitive page, is killed in the fighting. Talaan swears again her new daughter will not be scarred, but Eefa returns from praying at the temple to find the deed has been done. Talaan catches her packing to leave again. Will Eefa manage to escape the city this time?

On the positive side, this story features vivid imagery, strong characterization and impressive world-building. Although Eefa remains somewhat shadowy, Talaan comes across larger than life. This is a high fantasy tale where Talaan wrestles with her success as a warrior versus her love for her family. The Emperor, hooked on conquest, makes more and more demands of her hero, until the costs start to outweigh the benefits for The Lion and her First Husband. The fact that these women seem to be Amazons adds an interesting angle, and it’s impressive that Talaan agrees to go off to war while carrying a child. And then ready to take on the Emperor right after childbirth? Pretty tough.

On the less positive side, the usage of gender terms in this society is interesting, but the switch ends up being awkward. As the prime example, it’s not immediately obvious why Eefa is considered a husband and not a wife. Because she’s a cripple and engaged in a non-military profession? And Tuvo is a war-wife, while most husbands father children and, presumably, keep house? Okay, got it. But this did assemble fairly slowly throughout the narrative, meaning it set stumbling blocks that affected the flow of the story.

Four stars.

Review of “As the Last I May Know” by S.L. Huang

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This fantasy/alternate reality short story is a finalist for the 2020 Hugo Awards. It was published by Tor.com on 23 October 2019. This review contains spoilers.

Nyma is ten years old and the chosen child. Her country is at war and Otto Han has just been elected president. The military has the seres missiles that will most certainly stop the war, but will also cause terrible destruction to the cities of the enemy. Nyma has the access codes for the missiles buried next to her heart, and the president has a ceremonial dagger that can be used to retrieve them. Nyma’s tutor Tej tells her to establish a relationship with Han, so she reads him poetry, and after a book of her poems is published, she becomes recognized nationally as a poet. However, their country is losing the war and pressure is mounting to use the missiles. Will Han sacrifice her to get the codes?

This is a highly creative mashup of atom bombs and access codes with human sacrifice. The Order, creators of the system, have put a human face on the codes, a child that the president has to kill with his own hands and that the people in the country know and love. Han has to complete this step before he can bring the missiles to bear on the enemy, a task that might otherwise be easy, callous and unfeeling. Stress builds, while we wonder if Han has the stomach to do it. As I was reading, I had visions of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, where people had no warning of the firestorm coming down on them.

On the less positive side, this is a little too pat. The characters carry out their roles and we get the message, but there’s really very little conflict other than the inevitability of the decision Han will have to make. Everybody remains obedient to the system, even though I expect military interests could come up with several ways to get around the issue of killing a child. We get to know Nyma through her poetry, but she remains mostly a cipher. The world and the situation also remain vague, and I ended up with very little in the way of solid images or details. Shouldn’t Nyma have had a security detail?

Three stars.

Congrats to the 2020 Hugo Finalists!

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As usual, there’s a pretty high correspondence between this list and the Nebulas. I’ve linked to the reviews I’ve already done, and I’ll review and link to the others in the fiction categories as soon as I can get organized. Okay really, pretty soon.

Best Novel
The City in the Middle of the Night, Charlie Jane Anders (Tor; Titan)
The Ten Thousand Doors of January, Alix E. Harrow (Redhook; Orbit UK)
The Light Brigade, Kameron Hurley (Saga; Angry Robot UK)
A Memory Called Empire, Arkady Martine (Tor; Tor UK)
Middlegame, Seanan McGuire (Tor.com Publishing)
Gideon the Ninth, Tamsyn Muir (Tor.com Publishing)

Best Novella
To Be Taught, If Fortunate, Becky Chambers (Harper Voyager; Hodder & Stoughton)
Anxiety Is the Dizziness of Freedom, Ted Chiang (Exhalation)
The Haunting of Tram Car 015, P. Djèlí Clark (Tor.com Publishing)
This Is How You Lose the Time War, Amal El-Mohtar & Max Gladstone (Saga)
In an Absent Dream, Seanan McGuire (Tor.com Publishing)
The Deep, Rivers Solomon, with Daveed Diggs, William Hutson & Jonathan Snipes (Saga)

Best Novelette
“For He Can Creep”, Siobhan Carroll (Tor.com 7/10/19)
“Omphalos”, Ted Chiang (Exhalation)
“Away with the Wolves”, Sarah Gailey (Uncanny 9-10/19)
“Emergency Skin”, N.K. Jemisin (Forward)
“The Blur in the Corner of Your Eye”, Sarah Pinsker (Uncanny 7-8/19)
“The Archronology of Love”, Caroline M. Yoachim (Lightspeed 4/19)

Best Short Story
“Do Not Look Back, My Lion”, Alix E. Harrow (Beneath Ceaseless Skies 1/31/19)
“As the Last I May Know”, S.L. Huang (Tor.com 10/23/19)
“And Now His Lordship Is Laughing” Shiv Ramdas (Strange Horizons 9/9/19)
“Ten Excerpts from an Annotated Bibliography on the Cannibal Women of Ratnabar Island”, Nibedita Sen (Nightmare 5/19)
“Blood Is Another Word for Hunger”, Rivers Solomon (Tor.com 7/24/19)
“A Catalog of Storms”, Fran Wilde (Uncanny 1-2/19)

Best Series
Winternight, Katherine Arden (Del Rey; Del Rey UK)
The Expanse, James S.A. Corey (Orbit US; Orbit UK)
Luna, Ian McDonald (Tor; Gollancz)
InCryptid, Seanan McGuire (DAW)
Planetfall, Emma Newman (Ace; Gollancz)
The Wormwood Trilogy, Tade Thompson (Orbit US; Orbit UK)

Best Related Work
Joanna Russ, Gwyneth Jones (University of Illinois Press)
The Pleasant Profession of Robert A Heinlein, Farah Mendlesohn (Unbound)
“2019 John W. Campbell Award Acceptance Speech”, Jeannette Ng (Dublin 2019 — An Irish Worldcon)
The Lady from the Black Lagoon: Hollywood Monsters and the Lost Legacy of Milicent Patrick, Mallory O’Meara (Hanover Square)
Becoming Superman: My Journey From Poverty to Hollywood, J. Michael Straczynski (Harper Voyager US)
Worlds of Ursula K. Le Guin

Best Graphic Story or Comic
Die, Volume 1: Fantasy Heartbreaker, Kieron Gillen, illustrated by Stephanie Hans (Image)
The Wicked + The Divine, Volume 9: Okay, Kieron Gillen, illustrated by Jamie McKelvie & Matt Wilson (Image Comics)
Monstress, Volume 4: The Chosen, Marjorie Liu, illustrated by Sana Takeda (Image)
LaGuardia, Nnedi Okorafor, illustrated by Tana Ford, colours by James Devlin (Berger Books/Dark Horse)
Paper Girls, Volume 6, Brian K. Vaughan, illustrated by Cliff Chiang & Matt Wilson (Image)
Mooncakes, Wendy Xu & Suzanne Walker (Oni Press; Lion Forge)

Best Dramatic Presentation, Long Form
Avengers: Endgame
Captain Marvel
Good Omens
Russian Doll, Season One
Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker
Us

Best Dramatic Presentation, Short Form
Doctor Who: “Resolution”
The Expanse: “Cibola Burn”
The Good Place: “The Answer”
The Mandalorian: “Redemption”
Watchmen: “A God Walks into Abar”
Watchmen: “This Extraordinary Being”

Best Editor, Short Form
Neil Clarke
Ellen Datlow
C.C. Finlay
Jonathan Strahan
Lynne M. Thomas & Michael Damian Thomas
Sheila Williams

Best Editor, Long Form
Sheila Gilbert
Brit Hvide
Diana M. Pho
Devi Pillai
Miriam Weinberg
Navah Wolfe

Best Professional Artist
Tommy Arnold
Rovina Cai
Galen Dara
John Picacio
Yuko Shimizu
Alyssa Winans

Best Semiprozine

Beneath Ceaseless Skies
Escape Pod
Fireside
FIYAH
Strange Horizons
Uncanny

Best Fanzine
The Book Smugglers
Galactic Journey
Journey Planet
nerds of a feather, flock together
Quick Sip Reviews
The Rec Center

Best Fancast

Be the Serpent
The Coode Street Podcast
Galactic Suburbia
Our Opinions Are Correct
Claire Rousseau’s YouTube channel
The Skiffy and Fanty Show

Best Fan Writer
Cora Buhlert
James Davis Nicoll
Alasdair Stuart
Bogi Takács
Paul Weimer
Adam Whitehead

Best Fan Artist
Iain Clark
Sara Felix
Grace P. Fong
Meg Frank
Ariela Housman
Elise Matthesen

Lodestar for Best Young Adult Book (Not a Hugo)
The Wicked King, Holly Black (Little, Brown; Hot Key)
Deeplight, Frances Hardinge (Macmillan)
Minor Mage, T. Kingfisher (Argyll)
Catfishing on CatNet, Naomi Kritzer (Tor Teen)
Dragon Pearl, Yoon Ha Lee (Disney/Hyperion)
Riverland, Fran Wilde (Amulet)

Astounding Award for Best New Writer (Not a Hugo)
Sam Hawke
R.F. Kuang
Jenn Lyons
Nibedita Sen
Tasha Suri
Emily Tesh

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